It refers to an individual's capacity to perform the various tasks in a job. It is the assessment of what one can do. An individual ability is essentially made up of two factors:
1) Intellectual ability
2) Physical ability
Ability to perform mental activities is known as intellectual ability. Intellectual abilities have got five dimensions.
1. Number aptitude: It is an ability to do speedy and accurate arithmetic.
2. Verbal comprehension: It is the ability to understand what is read and heard and the relationship of words to each other.
3. Perceptual speed: It is the ability to identify visual similarities and differences quickly and accurately.
4. Inductive reasoning: It is the ability to identify a logical sequence in a problem and then solve the problem.
5. Deductive reasoning: It is the ability to see logic and assesses the implication of an argument.
6. Special visualization: It is the ability to imagine how an object would look like it its position in space was changed.
7. Memory: It is the ability to retain and recall past experience.
These abilities are required for doing successfully less skilled and more standardized jobs. Physical abilities are required to do tasks that demand stamina, strength and similar characteristics. The various physical abilities are:
1. Dynamic strength: Ability to exert muscular force continuously overtime.
2. Trunk strength: Ability to exert muscular using trunk muscles.
3. Static strength: Ability to exert force against external objects.
4. Explosive strength: Ability to expand a maximum of energy in one or a series of explosive acts.
5. Extent flexibility: Ability to move the trunk and back muscles as far as possible.
6. Dynamic flexibility: Ability to make rapid, repeated flexing movements.
7. Body co-ordination: Ability to co-ordinate the simultaneous actions of different parts of the body.
8. Balance: Ability to maintain equilibrium despite forces pulling off balance.
9. Stamina: Ability to continue maximum effort requiring prolonged efforts overtime.
Ability-job fit is said to be high if there is a proper match between employee's ability and ability requirements of the job that employees should perform. If employee's do not posses the ability required for the job, they are likely to fall. Ability-job fit is out of fit even if the employee has an ability which far exceeds the requirement of the job. If an employee's ability exceeds the ability the job requires, he may loose his job satisfaction.
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