It is defined as something that strengthens a behavior and increases the possibility that their probability will be repeated. There are 4 types if reinforcements.

Positive Reinforcement

This consists of a reward for an individual for his behavior. This tends to increase the probability that the behavior will be repeated.

Example: If a boss praises an employee for a good job done by him, the employee will repeated his behavior of doing good job.

In this type of reinforcement, workers who exhibit behaviors like punctuality, hard work, loyalty and commitment will be rewarded by the managers with pay increase, prize and promotion.

Negative Reinforcement

This consists of criticism for an individual for his behavior. This tends to reduce the probability that the behavior will be repeated.

Example: If a worker is criticized for frequent absences from duty, the workers will not repeat his behavior of absenting himself.



It includes causing an unpleasant condition in an attempt to eliminate an undesirable behavior.

Example: Giving an employee a two day suspension form work without pay for showing up late is an example of punishment.


Eliminating any reinforcement that is maintaining behavior is called extincation.

Example: A worker exhibits a particular behavior expecting positive reinforcement. If that behavior has to be eliminated, then the positive reinforcement given to him has to be eliminated.

Next Chapters

Organizational Culture
Value System
Job Satisfaction

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