# Cellular Systems

Cellular systems implements Space Division Multiplexing Technique
(SDM). Each transmitter is called a base station and can cover a fixed area
called a cell. This area can vary from few meters to few kilometers.

Mobile network providers install several thousands of base
stations each with a smaller cell instead of using power full transmitters with
large cells because, when the cell size is small we can have the following
advantages:

**1. ****Higher capacity**

Smaller the size of the cell more the number of concurrent users
i.e. huge cells do not allow for more concurrent users.

**2. ****Less transmission power**

Huge cells require a greater transmission power than small
cells.

**3. ****Local interference only**

For huge cells there are a number of interfering signals, while
for small cells there is limited interference only.

**4. ****Robustness**

As cellular systems are decentralized, they are more robust
against the failure of single components.

## Disadvantages of Cellular Systems

**Some of the
disadvantages of cellular systems are:**

**1. ****Infrastructure needed**

Small cells require a complex infrastructure to connect all
base station. The infrastructure required includes switches for call
forwarding, location registers etc.

**2. ****Handover needed**

The mobile station has to perform a handover when changing
from one cell to another very frequently.

**3. ****Frequency planning**

To avoid interference, frequency spectrum should be
distributed properly with a very less range of frequency spectrum.

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