The apostrophe is denoted by '

(i) It is used to show that some letter/letters have been omitted:

Apostrophe Sign

e'en, it's (it is), 'tis (it is)

(ii) It is used to make possessive forms:

Ram's book, the boy's common room.

(iii) It is also used to form the plurals of letters and figures:

One should mind one's p's and q's.

Add four 2's and six 4's.

Inverted Commas

Inverted commas ", single or double, are used for indicating the beginning and the end of a quotation or of the actual words used by a speaker.

Inverted Commas Sign

He said, "I don't know anything about it".

He said that I should not have called him "a thief and a liar".



(i) It is used to make a break or abrupt turn in a sentence.

If my son was here - but why regret the impossible? He was in the U.S.A.

Dash Punctuation

(ii) It is used to mark words in apposition or explanation.

Everything looks graceful in her fingers - spoons, forks as well as the purses.

(iii) It is used to resume a scattered subject.

Health, friends, position, happiness - all are gone.

(iv) It is used to describe a hesitating or faltering speech.

I - er - don't - er - believe - er - you.

(v) It is used to insert a parenthetical phrase or clause in the middle of a sentence. Here two dashes - one before and one after - are required.

He is a man - to say the truth - does not deserve the job.

He - I must say - is a rogue.


Brackets () are used like dashes.

Brackets Punctuation

He (I must say) is a rogue.


A hyphen :- is used for joining the parts of compound words.

Hyphen Punctuation

Bathing-place, non-implementation.

Capital Letters

(i) The first word of every new sentence and of every line of a poem/poetry (used in plays) should begin with a capital letter.

(ii) The Pronoun I and the Interjection Oh and O are always written in capital.

(iii) The first letter of a Proper Noun (name) is always capital.

(iv) All Nouns and Pronouns which indicate the Deity are written with capital letters.

God, the Almighty, the Lord, must show his mercy in such a human calamity.

(v) The capital is used to begin a Direct Speech in a sentence:

He said, "Work is worship".

Grammer Topics

Sentence Formation
Noun and Verb
Simple Sentence, Clause & Phrase
Objective Complement
Intransitive Verb
Noun and Pronoun
Types of Sentences
Finite Verb
Prefixes and Suffixes
Semi Colon
Reported Speech

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