Participles

There are three kinds of principles - Present, Past and Perfect Participle.

1. Present Participle - going, doing etc.

2. Past Participle - gone, done etc.

3. Perfect Participle - having done, having lost etc.

Present Participle

1. Present Participle Functioning as Adjective

Look at the following sentences:

a. We heard a women screaming aloud.

b. I shouted at Robin travelling in a bus.

In these sentences, 'screaming' and 'travelling' are telling something more about the nouns 'woman' and 'Robin' respectively and are, therefore, functioning like adjectives. Hence the present participles 'screaming' and 'travelling' are functioning as Adjectives.

2. Present Participle functioning as Adverb

Look at the following sentences:

a. The train came crashing into the platform.

b. The little boy went crying to his mother.

In these sentences, the present participles 'crashing' and 'crying' are telling something more about the verbs 'came' and 'went' respectively and hence they are functioning as Adverb.


    


Past Participle

Past Participle Functioning as Adjective

Look at the following sentences:

a. I took pity on the tired man.

b. He looked a discouraged boy.

In these sentences, the Past Participle 'tired' and 'discouraged' are telling something more about the nouns 'man' and 'boy' respectively and hence are functioning as Adjective.

Perfect Participle

1. Perfect Participle Functioning as Adjectives

Look at the following sentences:

a. Having completed his homework, Ravi went to play football.

b. Having lost the battle, the king killed himself.

In these sentences, the Perfect Participles 'having completed' and 'having lost' are telling something about the nouns 'Ravi' and 'the king' respectively and hence they are functioning as Adjective.

2. Perfect Participle Functioning in its Absolute Form (Nominate Absolute Construction)

Let us look at the following sentences:

a. The sun having set, the birds went back to their nest.

b. The storm having stopped, we started our journey.

In these sentences, the Perfect Principles 'having set' and 'having stopped' represent actions completed at a particular in the past and stand independently in the sentence. Such a use of the Perfect Participle is called Nominate Absolute Construction.




Grammer Topics

Sentence Formation
Noun and Verb
Simple Sentence, Clause & Phrase
Objective Complement
Intransitive Verb
Noun and Pronoun
Adjective
Adverb
Infinitives
Particles
Gerund
Preposition
Phrase
Clause
Types of Sentences
Finite Verb
Prefixes and Suffixes
Tense
Punctuation
Semi Colon
Apostrophe
Reported Speech
 
 


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