Forging is the process in which metal is heated at sufficiently high temperature to bring it to the plastic state. During this plastic state desired shape is given by applying sufficient force either by hand (manually) or by machine.

The shop in which forging is done is known as 'Forging shop'.

Type of forging

a. Hand forging.
b. Machine forging.

Hand Forging

When forging is done by hand, the process is known as hand forging. In case of heavy jobs, smith is assisted by a hammer-man. Important hand forging operations are drawing down, upsetting, bending, punching, swaging and shearing etc.


Machine Forging

The processes, in which forging is done by machines are known as Machine Forging. Machine forging is useful for heavy and complicated jobs requiring large forces.

(i) Smith forging: In this process metal is heated in suitable forges and then shaping of the metal is carried out by power or steam hammers and hand tools. In this method accuracy depends upon the experience and skill of the smith.

With this method, similar pieces cannot be obtained and process requires too much time.

This method is used for large and simple types of products.

(ii) Drop forging: It is a process of hammering the metal during plastic state in impression dies. Die is used in two parts, one die is allowed to drop on the other, the hot metal in the plastic state is thus squeezed between the two dies and thus form the desired shaped of the forged product. Steam or power hammer can be used, instead of allowing the upper die to drop on the lower die from certain height. This process takes less time.

This is generally used, where large numbers of identical shapes of good quality forgings are to be produced.

(iii) Press Forging: Very heavy forgings are given proper shapes by the presses. This press can either be hydraulically operated or mechanically operated. Press forging method employs squeezing of plastic metal or metal in plastic condition and gives the required shape in the dies. Pressure is applied continuously and gradually. By applying gradual pressure excessive vibration can be avoided, which may otherwise disturb the machine alignment by rapid blows of hammer.

Also See: Forging Operations and Estimation

Next Chapters

Estimating Procedure
Difference between Estimating & Costing
Depreciation & Obsolescence
Material Cost Calculation
Calculating Labor Cost
Direct and Indirect Expenses
Component Cost
Machine Shop Estimating
Forging and Forging Types
Starting an Organization
Welding Cost Estimation
Jigs and Fixtures
Qualities of an Entrepreneur
Starting Small Scale Industries
Budget and Budgetary Control
Supply & Law of Supply
Exchange and Barter Exchange
Classification of Market
Money and Types of Money
Trade Cycle
Break Even Analysis
Financial Management

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