Internet Protocol

The IP (Internet Protocol) is the process by which information is transported from one computer to some other computer on the web. All computer (called a host) on the web has at minimal of one IP address that distinguishes it from all other pc on the web.

Information on a web Protocol network is configured into packages. Every IP address includes header (defines Identification, type of service, destination, and other info) and the message information itself.

The following diagram shows the IP header format which is of 20 octets length.

Internet Protocol

1.    Version

This field specifies the version of the protocol used in it.

2.    Header length

Specifies the number of 32 bit words present in the header. It is 5 for 20 octet’s header.

3.    Type of service

This field provides guidance about the relative priority to be given to a packet by the IP module present in the end system and Router.

4.    Total length

Specifies the total length of the IP datagram including the header in the terms of octets.

5.    Identification

Contains a unique 16 bit number to identify the datagram.

6.    Flags

It is in 3 hit fields that can be used to specify whether it is that last fragment in the original packet or whether fragmentation is required or not.

7.    Offers

Gives the distance from the beginning where the fragment resides within the datagram.

8.    Time to live

Contains a value in seconds that specifies how long the data gram is valid in the internet. Each time it passes through a Router; the value is decremented by one. When this value reaches 0, the datagram is no longer valid.

9.    Protocol

Indicates which higher level protocol should receive the packet at the destination.

10.   Header check sum

Used for error detection.

11.   Source address

Specifies the IP address of the sender.

12.   Destination address

Specifies the IP address of the destination.

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