Motivation is the act of stimulating a person to get a desired work done. Man may have the ability to work but may not have the desire to work. The desire may be created by motivation. To motivate a worker, his desires/needs should be studied and fulfilled. Needs can be identified by studying the psychology of the workers.
Motivation is important for the following reasons:
1. Motivated workers produce more qualitative products and they always achieve target.
2. Motivated workers need less supervision and guidance.
3. Motivated workers always motivate others and their group involvement and participation are very much higher.
4. Motivated workers do not hesitate to be open in sending and receiving communication.
5. Motivated workers obey authority.
6. Motivated workers are highly creative and innovative.
7. Motivated workers attempt to solve problems themselves.
There are 4 early theories of motivation. They are:
1. Maslow"s Hierarchy of Needs Theory
2. Theory X and Theory Y
3. Two-Factor Theory
4. ERG Theory
Maslow, a renowned psychologist put forth a theory called "Need hierarchy theory". According to him, humans have a variety of needs which follow a rule of hierarchy.
The hierarchy of needs is as follows.
1. Physiological need: This need includes the basic necessities of life like food, clothing and shelter.
2. Safety needs: This need is of two types.
a) Physical safety: To satisfy the organization should provide safety equipments, safety rules, health, accident and life insurance.
b) Psychological safety: This need includes the desire to have his need satisfied not only for the present but also for the future.
3. Social needs: This need includes the desire of belongingness, affection and attention.
4. Ego needs: This need includes the want for prestige and power.
5. Self-realization need (SR Needs): This need includes the desire to use full capabilities one possesses. Man looks for self-development in the organization he works. Organization must provide necessary opportunity for the same.
The hierarchy of needs can be represented in the form of a pyramid. Maslow classified these five needs into two categories. The psychological and safety needs are grouped as lower order needs. The social, ego and self-realization needs are classified as higher order needs.
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