The agriculture is the individual largest user of water in the Earth and most of that water is used for crops irrigating. The irrigation is the method of transporting water from one area to another area for the purpose of crops growing. Water used for irrigation generally comes from groundwater pumped from wells or from rivers and the important reason for the crops irrigating is that it increases productions. This as well allows the agriculture of marginal land in dry regions that would generally not support pastures and there are several processes of irrigation: the flood irrigation, the furrow irrigation, the drip irrigation and the center pivot irrigation.

Flood Irrigation

The flood irrigation involves the oversupplying of a crop area placed on generally flat acres and this gravity flow process of water is relatively easy to carry out, particularly whenever the natural flooding of river plains is used and hence is cost effectual. Still, some of the water used in flood irrigation is unsaved, either by vaporization or by infiltration into soil near to the intended area of irrigation process.

Flood Irrigation

Since farmland must be even for flood irrigation to be utilized, the flood irrigation is only practical in definite fields (for example. the bottomlands and river flood plains). Additionally, since land is completely weak, the salts from the irrigation H2O can buildup in the soil, finally rendering it sterile.

Furrow Irrigation

The furrow irrigation as well involves gravity flow of water on comparatively flat dry land. Still, therein form of the irrigation, H2O flow is confined to ditches or furrows between crops rows and this provides better control of the water and hence, the less water is necessary and less is lost.

Furrow Irrigation

Since water can be delivered to the furrows from piping's, land doesn't need to be completely even. Yet, the furrow irrigation involves higher operating expense than the flood irrigation due to the increased employer and equipments needed. This also involves large evaporative loss.


Drip Irrigation

The drip irrigation involves letting in small amounts of water directly to individual plants. The water is released by perforated tube mounted below or above ground near the root ages of plants individual and this process was originally developed in Israel for practice in dry regions having limited H2O available for irrigation process.

Drip Irrigation

It's highly effective with little waste of H2O. A few disadvantages of the drip irrigation are the high prices of facility and maintenance of the system. Hence, it's only practical for use of cash crops on high-value.

Center Pivot Sprinkling System

The center pivot sprinkling systems delivers water to crops from the sprinklers mounted on a long boom and which revolves about a pivot center. The water is pumped to the pivot from a close well irrigation. Center pivot sprinkler system has the advantage that it's very mobile and can be moved from one field to another field as wanted. This can as well be used on uneven crop land as the moving boom can follow the forms of the land (field). The center-pivot systems are widely practiced of the United States in the southwest regions and western plains.

Center Pivot Sprinkling System

In proper direction, the properly designed systems can be almost as effective as the systems of drip irrigation. The center-pivot systems have high initial prices and need a nearby the irrigation well capable of supplying a high flow sufficiently. The constant irrigation with ground water can as well lead to sanitization of the soil (sand).

Next Chapters

Conservation of Energy
Organism, Bacteria and Virus
Energy & its Types
The Volcanoes
Rock Cycle
Food Resources
Renewable Sources of Energy
Irrigation and Types of Irrigation
Population Growth
Non-renewable Sources of Energy
Ozone Depletion
Soil Erosion

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