The human activities release variety of materials into the atmospheric layer, a few of which negatively affect the surroundings. The pollutants discharged into the surroundings can accumulate in the soil, air or water. The chemicals discharged into the air that have a related impact on the surroundings are known as primary pollutants in the environment and these primary pollutants some of the times react with different chemicals in the air to produce secondary pollutants in the environment.

The wide variety of organisms and chemicals are daily discharged into oceans, lakes and rivers. The left out unprocessed industrial waste and sewage has a dangerous impact on the quality of H2O and not only in the city region but also river areas regions.

Air Pollution

The 8 categories of air pollutants are as follows: the oxides of carbon, the sulfur and nitrogen, the volatile organic compounds, the suspended particulate matter, the photochemical oxidants, the radioactive substances and the hazardous pollution of air. The oxides of carbon let in (CO) carbon monoxide and (CO2) carbon dioxide. The carbon monoxide, the primary pollutant is chiefly produced by the unfinished combustion of fuels of fossil. It's as well present in smoking cigarette. Colorless, odorless gas is toxicant to animals for air-breathing.

Air Pollution Pictures

The carbon monoxide binds to hemoglobin (Hb), the impeding delivery to cells by oxygen. The air pollution causes headache, giddiness, sickness and sleepiness at high concentrations it can cause death (dying). The carbon monoxide pollution from machines can be reduced by the use of oxygenated fuels and catalytic converters.


Water Pollution

The soil erosion is the important process leading silts or sediments to water bodies. The sediments can cloud the water of rivers and streams, it reducing the amount of available sunlight to hydrophytes (aquatic plants) and the concurrent decrease in photosynthesis can interrupt the local ecosystem in the nature.

Water Pollution Pictures

The soil from croplands deposited in streams and lakes can carry pesticides, the other substances and bacteria that are harmful to aquatic beings. The sediments can as well the lakes clog or fill up, waterways and reservoirs limiting habitats of disrupting and human use.

Soil Pollution

The continuity of pesticides in the soil is related to how rapidly these chemicals degrade in the Earth and there are 3 ways pesticides are degraded in the soil particles are: the biodegradation, the chemical degradation and the degradation of photochemical. The microorganism action plays the predominant function in the pesticides biodegradation. The water plays a significant role in the pesticides chemical degradation (for example. Few pesticides are hydrolyzed on the minerals surfaces by H2O). The exposure to sunlight can as well degrade some pesticides in the soil.

Soil Pollution Pictures

The several of pesticides are practiced to control weeds, insects, fungi, mildew in agricultural, environments of household and garden. The pesticides are classified into 3 types: the fungicides, i.e. which kill fungi, the insecticides, i.e. which kill insects and the herbicides, i.e. which kill plants. All of these divisions include different kinds of chemicals in the earth. Chemicals differ in composition of chemical, chemical process, residence time (persistence) and toxicity in the surroundings. Many of these pesticides can bioaccumulation (for example. it concentrates in specific animal and plant organs and tissues). The pesticides can accumulate in the soil suppose their structures are not easily analyzed in the surroundings. As well rendering the soil harmful to other living beings and these pesticides may leach out into the spring water, polluting water.

Next Chapters

Conservation of Energy
Organism, Bacteria and Virus
Energy & its Types
The Volcanoes
Rock Cycle
Food Resources
Renewable Sources of Energy
Irrigation and Types of Irrigation
Population Growth
Non-renewable Sources of Energy
Ozone Depletion
Soil Erosion

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