The following diagram shows a PDA that communicates with a base station (or) with a radio transceiver. The PDA on the other side communicates with a computer. For these devices to get connected we require five layers viz.
1. The physical layer.
2. The date link layer.
3. The network layer.
4. The transport layer.
5. The application layer.
1. Application layer
This layer is the top most layers that consist of a number of applications for service location, multimedia applications, and wireless access to world-wide web using a portable device etc.
2. Transport layer
This layer is used to establish an end to end connection. It consists of a number of protocols such TCP, UDP etc for transmitting the data over the network, controlling the connection etc.
3. Network layer
This layer can be used to route packets through a network or to establish a connection between to entities over many other intermediate systems.
4. Data link layer
This layer is impossible for a reliable point to point connection between two devices or point as multipoint connection. The other functions of this layer include accessing the medium, multiplexing of different data streams, correction of transmission errors.
5. Physical layer
This is the lowest layer of the reference model.
At the sender, this layer converts a stream of bits into signals while at the receiving end it converts the signals back into streams of bits.
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